Harvesting

Our working capital is provided through revenues created by harvesting selected areas of the forest. In keeping with our FSC Certification these stands are sustainably managed, along with the rest of the forest.

 

GENERIC TREE MARKING INSTRUCTIONS AND
SILVICULTURAL PRESCRIPTIONS FOR THE SUDBURY FOREST

December, 2007 Version

INTRODUCTION

The first step in prescribing logging and renewal activities on an allocated stand is to ensure that the stand has been assigned to an appropriate forest unit. In clearcut forest units, this may be done by aerial inspection, aerial photograph interpretation, or most commonly by a walk-through ocular inspection. Selection and shelterwood forest units require a more formal survey including collection of data for basal area distribution by species, size class, and quality class in order to make an appropriate distinction.

Tree marking prior to harvest is essential in partial cut systems to meet silvicultural objectives. For all cutting systems, environmental and aesthetic protection, as well as maintenance or enhancement of wildlife habitat or rare vegetation populations, are additional goals that can be achieved through judicious implementation of tree marking prescriptions. All stand conditions must be taken into consideration to optimize the multiple objectives that depend on thoughtful tree marking. Tree markers must be trained and be familiar in recognizing site and stand potential in order to implement complex marking directions to satisfy these multiple objectives.

Selection, uniform shelterwood and seed tree clearcut silviculture systems are designed to promote natural regeneration. Markers must evaluate existing regeneration and expected recruitment when making individual removal / retention decisions.

TREE MARKING RULES

Paint Application

All marked trees (with the exception of boundary lines) require a paint band 2.5 cm in width or greater completely around the tree at breast height or higher (1.4 m+), and a vertical line at least 1/2 metre long starting with a solid, heavy, patch in a depression between roots at ground level. If there is no depression, two butt marks should be applied. If moss, snow or debris has accumulated on the bark, this will be scraped free to ensure that the paint remains visible on the stump after harvest.

Marking ‘To Go’ or ‘To Stay’

Tree species that are common, low in wildlife value, aggressive natural regenerators, or have no shade requirements for successful regeneration are always to be harvested (‘To Go’) unless marked blue to be retained for their wildlife or silviculture value. Conversely, tree species that are less common, high in wildlife value, or less aggressive natural regenerators, or have shade requirements for successful regeneration are ‘To Stay’ unless marked orange or yellow for harvest.

Species ‘To Go’ or ‘To Stay’ unless marked.

'To Go' Unless Marked Blue
'To Stay' Unless Marked Orange or Yellow

Jack Pine

White Pine
White Spruce
Red Pine
Black Spruce
Hemlock
Balsam Fir
Cedar
Poplar
Hard Maple
White Birch
Yellow Birch
Red Maple
Oak
Ash
Beech
Basswood
Ironwood
Black Cherry
Elm


Painted Boundary Lines

Painted boundary lines must be done using red paint. Cut block boundaries will be marked using an inverted “T“ (2) at 1.4 m or higher, with the horizontal band extending halfway around the tree. The boundary marks must be facing into the cut block area and be clearly visible - both from one mark to the next and from within the cut area. The letters “CB” will be marked below the inverted T on some of the larger trees in the line. In clearcut forest units, block and AOC boundaries may be marked with brightly-coloured flagging tape (pink, red, or orange) instead of paint.

Where modified harvesting is allowed in Areas of Concern (AOC), boundaries will be marked using two parallel horizontal bands in red paint approximately 30 cm apart at 1.4 m or higher, with the bands extending halfway around the tree. The AOC marks must face into the cut block area (away from the protected value) and be clearly visible - both from one mark to the next and from within the cut area. The distance from the protected value will be printed between the horizontal bands (i.e. 30) on some of the larger trees in the line. The use of flagging tape is not recommended if cutting is to be done within a modified harvest portion of an AOC.

Tree marking will extend beyond this line into an AOC modified harvest area. One of two marking options may be applied. The first option is to mark all trees that may be removed in the modified zone in yellow or orange paint, including ‘To Go’ species that normally would be cut if unmarked. A red line at the reserve boundary is not required in this option since only trees marked orange or yellow will be cut, and no trees will be marked in the reserve portion. A second option in modified harvest areas where there is a high density of small diameter stems, is to mark all trees to be retained in blue which will allow the removal of all unmarked stems. If this second option is used, the reserve red line must be installed.

Private Land Boundaries

Before marking harvest boundaries adjacent to private land, VFM and/or the Overlapping Licensee will attempt to contact the adjacent landowner to notify them of planned activities. When possible, the harvest boundary should be marked with the adjacent landowner present to prevent misunderstandings. Records of contacts with adjacent landowners will be kept on file at VFM’s office. If the adjacent landowner cannot be contacted, or is not available to jointly locate the harvest boundary, then the boundary will be located using a GPS and mapped prior to harvest to ensure accuracy. In situations where the exact boundary of the harvest is difficult to determine (i.e. there are no survey stakes and no physical tie-ins), a buffer will be left. The width of the buffer will depend upon the difficulty of determining the correct location. Volumes unharvested in these buffers will not be considered a ‘wasteful practice’ in utilization terms.

Marking Corrections

Trees marked in error, including red lines, can be ‘deleted’ by completely covering the incorrect paint marks with black or grey paint.

GENERIC FOREST OPERATIONS PRESCRIPTIONS FOR
THE 2005 SUDBURY FOREST FMP

INTRODUCTION

Tree marking is always required in advance of harvest in selection, shelterwood, and seed tree clearcut forest units. When marking ‘To Stay’ species, defective Unacceptable Growing Stock (UGS) stems are always marked for harvest before Acceptable Growing Stock (AGS) to achieve residual spacing objectives. A UGS tree is one that is expected to decline in condition over the next twenty-year period.

In clearcut forest units, advance seed tree or shelterwood marking is required in pockets of white pine / red pine / white spruce where basal area warrants these systems. Also, limited marking may occur among individual stems of ‘To Go’ species to remove disease and defect. However, normally in clearcut forest units no advanced marking will be done and individual stems to be retained to meet Natural Disturbance Pattern Emulation Guideline (NDPEG) and cavity tree targets are chosen at the discretion of the trained harvester.

The NDPEG individual tree retention target of 25 stems greater than 10 cm dbh per hectare applies to all clearcut forest units and to final cuts in shelterwood forest units. Cavity tree requirements apply to all forest units and all harvest stages in partial cut systems. Stems retained for NDPEG requirements also count towards cavity tree targets if the criteria are met. Cavity trees should have cavities or show signs of decline suggesting potential cavity development. At least 6 such trees over 25 cm dbh, including 1 over 40 cm dbh where present should be retained. Additionally, supercanopy pine or hemlock, usually 50 cm dbh+, should be retained at a rate of 1 for every 4 ha where they exist.

GENERIC PRESCRIPTIONS FOR CLEARCUT SILVICULTURE SYSTEM

FOREST UNITS

BW – White Birch Poplar Mixed Clearcut Forest Unit

Harvest Instructions

If the average stand age exceeds 90 years, at least 12 of the retained NDPEG trees should be white birch to provide a seed source to promote regeneration of single stem, seed origin birch. Once NDPEG and cavity tree requirements have been met, all remaining merchantable ‘To Go’ species are to be harvested. If ‘To Stay’ species occur in the stand, limited marking may occur in clumps to remove individual diseased or defective stems. Seed tree or shelterwood marking will apply in larger pine patches where there is sufficient basal area.

Preferred Silvicultural Treatment Packages

Management Approach Treatment Description STP SGR Min. Species Composition Objectives Min. Stk
Extensive CC - Nat Regen BW-BW-EXT-1 1 Bw+Po+Mr+Other Hdwds >=70% and Po<50% 0.6
Pw Restoration CC-SIP-PIntPwPr BW-PWUS-1 2 Pw+Pr>=30% and (Pw+Pr)xStk>=30% 0.6
Pr Restoration CC-Mech_Chem-PIntPr-Chem-PCT BW-PR-INT-1 5 Pr>=70% and Pw<30 0.6
Intensive Pj CC-PIntPj-Chem BW-PJ-INT-1 8 Pj>=70% 0.6

Because white birch and poplar aggressively regenerate naturally from sprouting, root suckers, and seed without further intervention following clearcutting, this extensive approach will be most common. On sites where evidence of past presence of white or red pine (stumps) exists, consideration will be given to restoring these sites to those species. Where jack pine and birch stands have been harvested in close proximity, planting of jack pine may extend into the birch harvest areas.

MW1 – Mixedwood Dry Clearcut Forest Unit

Harvest Instructions

Once NDPEG / cavity tree requirements have been met, all remaining merchantable ‘To Go’ species are to be harvested. If ‘To Stay’ species occur in the stand, limited marking may occur in clumps to remove individual diseased or defective stems. Care must be taken to minimize damage to regenerating pine and spruce.

Preferred Silvicultural Treatment Packages

Management Approach Treatment Description STP SGR Min. Species Composition Objectives Min. Stk
Extensive CC - Nat Regen MW1-MW1-EXT-1 11 No one species >=40% in sp. comp. & conifer >=30% (Pw+Pr+Pj>=20%) 0.6
Basic CC-Nat Regen-Chem MW1-MW1-BASC-1 12 No one species >=40% in sp. comp. & conifer >=30% (Pw+Pr+Pj>=20%) 0.6
Pw Pr Restoration CC-PIntPwPr-Chem MW1-PWUS-1 16 Pw+Pr>=30% & (Pw+Pr)xStk>=30 0.6
Intensive Pj CC-PIntPj-Chem MW1-PJ-INT-1 19 Pj>=70% 0.6

Because white birch and poplar aggressively regenerate naturally from sprouting, root suckers, and seed without further intervention following clearcutting, this extensive approach will be most common. MW1 stands commonly have spruce and white pine advanced regeneration that contribute to the future overstorey. A target for this forest unit is to maintain at least 40 percent conifer component in species composition. On sites where evidence of past presence of white or red pine (stumps) exists, consideration will be given to restoring these sites to those species. Where jack pine and dry mixedwood stands have been harvested in close proximity, planting of jack pine may extend into the mixedwood harvest areas.

MW2 – Mixedwood Moist Clearcut Forest Unit

Harvest Instructions

Once NDPEG / cavity tree requirements have been met, all remaining merchantable ‘To Go’ species are to be harvested. If ‘To Stay’ species occur in the stand, limited marking may occur in clumps to remove individual diseased or defective stems. Care must be taken to minimize damage to regenerating pine and spruce.

Preferred Silvicultural Treatment Packages

Management Approach Treatment Description STP SGR Min. Species Composition Objectives Min. Stk
Extensive CC - Nat Regen MW2-MW2-EXT-1 22 No one species >=40% in sp. comp. & conifer >=30% (Pw+Pr+Pj<20%) 0.6
Basic CC-Nat Regen-Chem MW2-MW2-BASC-1 23 No one species >=40% in sp. comp. & conifer >=30% (Pw+Pr+Pj<20%) 0.6
Sw Restoration CC-Chem-PIntSwPwPr-Chem MW2-SF-INT-1 27 Sw+Bf+Pw+Pr+Other Conifers >=70% and Pw+Pr<30% & Hardwoods <40% 0.6

White birch and poplar regenerate naturally from sprouting, root suckers, and seed without further intervention following clearcutting MW2 stands commonly have spruce and white pine advanced regeneration that contribute to the future overstorey. A target for this forest unit is to maintain at least 40 percent conifer component in species composition. Manual chemical tending will be required to encourage development of new germinants and advanced growth spruce and pine. On sites where conifer advanced regeneration is sparse, white spruce and possibly white and red pine will be planted. On these sites, the target conifer component rises to 70 percent.

PJ – Jack Pine Clearcut Forest Unit

Harvest Instructions

Once NDPEG / cavity tree requirements have been met, all remaining merchantable ‘To Go’ species are to be harvested. If ‘To Stay’ species occur in the stand, limited marking may occur in clumps to remove individual diseased or defective stems.

Preferred Silvicultural Treatment Packages

Management Approach Treatment Description STP SGR Min. Species Composition Objectives Min. Stk
Extensive CC - Nat Regen PJ-PJ-EXT-1 30 Pj>=70% 0.6
Basic CC-Nat Regen-Chem PJ-PJ-BASC-1 31 Pj>=70% 0.6
Intensive Pj CC-PIntPj-Chem PJ-PJ-INT-1 33 Pj>=70% 0.6

Typically, the intensive approach of planting jack pine at a rate of approximately 1500/ha within two seasons following harvest will be taken. Tending will be done two or three seasons following planting with a glyphosate-based herbicide.

PJSB – Jack Pine Upland Black Spruce Clearcut Forest Unit

Harvest Instructions

Once NDPEG / cavity tree requirements have been met, all remaining merchantable ‘To Go’ species are to be harvested. If ‘To Stay’ species occur in the stand, limited marking may occur in clumps to remove individual diseased or defective stems. Care must be taken to minimize damage to regenerating pine and spruce. Preferentially skid over balsam fir advanced regeneration to reduce abundance.

Preferred Silvicultural Treatment Packages

Management Approach Treatment Description STP SGR Min. Species Composition Objectives Min. Stk
Extensive CC - Nat Regen PJSB-PJSB-EXT-1 36 Conifers>=70% & Sw+Bf+Pw+Pr<40% & Sb<80% 0.6
Basic CC-Nat Regen-Chem PJSB-PJSB-BASC-1 37 Conifers>=70% & Sw+Bf+Pw+Pr<40% & Sb<80% 0.6
Intensive PjSb CC-PIntPj-Chem PJSB-PJSB-INT-1 39 Conifers>=70% & Sw+Bf+Pw+Pr<40% & Sb<80% 0.6

Typically, the intensive approach of planting jack pine at a rate of approximately 1200/ha within two seasons following harvest will be taken. Tending will be done two or three seasons following planting with a glyphosate-based herbicide.

PO – Poplar Clearcut Forest Unit

Harvest Instructions

Once NDPEG / cavity tree requirements have been met, all remaining merchantable ‘To Go’ species are to be harvested. If ‘To Stay’ species occur in the stand, limited marking may occur in clumps to remove individual diseased or defective stems.

Preferred Silvicultural Treatment Packages

Management Approach Treatment Description STP SGR Min. Species Composition Objectives Min. Stk
Extensive CC - Nat Regen PO-PO-EXT-1 42 Po>=50% &Conifers<40% 0.6
Pw Restoration CC-Mech-Chem-PIntPwPr-Chem PO-PWUS-1 43 Pw+Pr>=30% and (Pw+Pr)xStk>=30% 0.6
Pr Restoration CC-Mech-Chem-PIntPr-Chem-PCT PO-PR-INT-1 46 Pr>=70% and Pw<30% 0.6
Intensive Pj CC-PIntPj-Chem PO-PJ-INT-1 49 Pj>=70% 0.6

Because poplar aggressively regenerates naturally from root suckers and seed without further intervention following clearcutting, this extensive approach will be most common on sites conducive to high quality poplar. On sites where evidence of past presence of white or red pine (stumps) exists, consideration will be given to restoring these sites to those species. Where jack pine and poplar stands have been harvested in close proximity, planting of jack pine may extend into the poplar harvest areas.

PR – Red Pine Clearcut Forest Unit

Harvest Instructions

a. Natural Red Pine Stands
Mark to seed tree specifications so that vigorous, well-formed, wind-firm red pine / white pine are retained at a spacing equal to average stem height. This should result in 15 to 35 pine at 25 to 17 m average spacing. The minimum 6 cavity trees must be retained in addition to the seed trees. Once these requirements have been met, all remaining merchantable ‘To Go’ species are to be harvested. If ‘To Stay’ species other than red pine and white pine occur in the stand, limited marking may occur in clumps to remove individual diseased or defective stems.

In areas of heavy pine advanced regeneration, tree markers will consider logging chance and mark to minimize damage during logging. Felling and skidding operations will be conducted to minimize damage to this advanced regeneration and residual stems.

Preferentially skid over balsam fir advanced growth to reduce its abundance and minimize damage to ‘To Stay’ species.

b. Red Pine Plantations – Commercial Thinning
Mark to remove approximately one third of the basal area by targeting the UGS and inferior stems in a ‘thinning from below’. Residual basal area should not be below 24 m2/ha. Retain 6 cavity trees/ha if present.

c. Red Pine Plantations – Final Removal
Once NDPEG / cavity tree requirements have been met, all remaining merchantable ‘To Go’ species are to be harvested. If ‘To Stay’ species other than red pine occur in the stand, limited marking may occur in clumps to remove individual diseased or defective stems. Consideration during marking must be given to access patterns to minimize damage to residuals.

Preferred Silvicultural Treatment Packages

Management Approach Treatment Description STP SGR Min. Species Composition Objectives Min. Stk
Extensive CC - Nat Regen PR-PR-EXT-1 52 Pr>=70% & Pw<30% 0.6
Basic CC-Mech-Nat Regen-Chem PR-PR-BASC-1 53 Pr>=70% & Pw<30% 0.6
Intensive Pr CC-PIntPj-Chem PR-PR-INT-1 57 Pr>=70% & Pw<30% 0.6
Commercial Thinning N/A PR-PR-CTPrsnt35-1 63 Pr>=70% & Pw<30% 0.6

On natural regeneration sites, establishment success will be monitored, and planting will prescribed if inadequate germinants apparent after 3 growing seasons post-harvest.
Intensive treatment will involve planting red pine at a rate of approximately 1800/ha. Tending with a glyphosate-based herbicide will follow two or three seasons later.

PWST – White Pine Seed Tree Clearcut Forest Unit

Marking and Harvest Instructions

Where basal area of white pine / red pine / white spruce is 4 to 12 m2/ha, seed tree specifications will be applied so that 15 to 35 high quality white or red pine trees per hectare remain. The minimum 6 cavity trees must be retained in addition to the seed trees. Once these requirements have been met, all remaining merchantable ‘To Go’ species are to be harvested. If ‘To Stay’ species other than red and white pine occur in the stand, limited marking may occur in clumps to remove individual diseased or defective stems. Pockets of pine having over 12 m2/ha basal area should be marked following shelterwood rules. Where advanced pine and spruce regeneration has established under declining intolerant hardwoods, the hardwood overstorey may be retained to reduce felling and skidding damage to the regenerating conifer. Preferentially skid over balsam fir advanced growth to reduce its abundance and minimize damage to white and red pine and other ‘To Stay’ species.

Preferred Silvicultural Treatment Packages

Management Approach Treatment Description STP SGR Min. Species Composition Objectives Min. Stk
Extensive CC - Nat Regen PWST-PWST-EXT-1 65 Pw+Pr>=30% &(Pw+Pr)xStk<30 0.6
Basic CC-Nat Regen-Chem PWST-PWST-BASC-1 66 Pw+Pr>=30% &(Pw+Pr)xStk<30 0.6
Pw Restoration CC-Chem-PIntPwPr-Chem PWST-PWUS-1 70 Pw+Pr>=30% &(Pw+Pr)xStk<30 0.6

Restoration to a white pine uniform shelterwood condition through artificial regeneration will be the typical treatment. Site preparation will be done by ground sprayer with a glyphosate-based herbicide one or two seasons following harvest. A mix of white pine and red pine will be planted at a rate of approximately 1600/ha in the season following site preparation. Tending will be done two or three seasons following planting with a glyphosate-based herbicide applied by air blast sprayer or aerially. If competition is less severe, tending may be delayed and done manually using mechanical or chemical techniques. A second tending, typically manual, may be required two to four years later to create a free-to-grow condition for the pine regeneration.

SBLC – Black Spruce Lowland Conifer Clearcut Forest Unit

Harvest Instructions

Once NDPEG / cavity tree requirements have been met, all remaining merchantable ‘To Go’ species are to be harvested. Retain a minimum of 7 well-spaced cedar/ha where possible to provide seed source for regeneration. Remove no more than 30% of basal area of cedar clumps to maintain wildlife cover.
The careful logging around advanced growth (CLAAG) harvest method will be employed where at least 500 stems/ha of high-quality advanced conifer regeneration is present.

Preferred Silvicultural Treatment Packages

Management Approach Treatment Description STP SGR Min. Species Composition Objectives Min. Stk
Extensive CC - Nat Regen SBLC-SBLC-EXT-1 73 Sb+Ce+La>=80% & Ce<40% & Hdwds <20% 0.6
Basic CC-Nat Regen-Chem SBLC-SBLC-BASC-1 74 Sb+Ce+La>=80% & Ce<40% & Hdwds <20% 0.6
Intensive Sb CC-PIntSwPwPr-Chem PJSB-PJSB-INT-1 75 Sb+Ce+La>=80% & Ce<40% & Hdwds <20% 0.6

Typically the intensive treatment of planting black spruce at a rate of approximately 1100/ha will be applied within two seasons following harvest. Aerial tending with a glyphosate-based herbicide will be required two or three seasons following planting.

SF – Spruce Fir Clearcut Forest Unit

Harvest Instructions

Once NDPEG / cavity tree requirements have been met, all remaining merchantable ‘To Go’ species are to be harvested. If ‘To Stay’ species occur in the stand, limited marking may occur in clumps to remove individual diseased or defective stems. Care must be taken to minimize damage to regenerating pine and spruce.

Preferred Silvicultural Treatment Packages

Management Approach Treatment Description STP SGR Min. Species Composition Objectives Min. Stk
Extensive CC - Nat Regen SF-SF-EXT-1 77 Sw+Bf+Pw+Pr+Other Conifers >=70% and Pw+Pr<30% & Hardwoods <40% 0.6
Basic CC-Nat Regen-Chem SF-SF-BASC-1 78 Sw+Bf+Pw+Pr+Other Conifers >=70% and Pw+Pr<30% & Hardwoods <40% 0.6
Intensive Sw CC-PIntSwPwPr-Chem SF-SF-INT-1 82 Sw+Bf+Pw+Pr+Other Conifers >=70% and Pw+Pr<30% & Hardwoods <40% 0.6

Typically the intensive treatment of planting white spruce, white pine, red pine at a rate of approximately 1300/ha will be applied within two seasons following harvest. Chemical tending with a glyphosate-based herbicide will be required two or three seasons following planting.

GENERIC PRESCRIPTIONS FOR PARTIAL CUT SILVICULTURE SYSTEM

FOREST UNITS

CE – Cedar Uniform Shelterwood Forest Unit

Marking and Harvest Instructions
The marking objective at the seed cut stage is to attain 60 to 70 percent crown closure following harvest.

When cedar regeneration is 0.5 to 1 m and regeneration stocking is 60 percent, mark for first removal to attain 40 to 50 percent crown closure following harvest.

Final removal marking may be done when cedar regeneration is 1 m or greater and regeneration stocking is 60 percent. Ten of the NDPEG stems should be veteran cedar. Once NDPEG / cavity tree requirements have been met, all remaining merchantable ‘To Go’ species are to be harvested.

In areas of ‘To Stay’ species advanced regeneration, tree markers will consider logging chance and mark to minimize damage during logging. Felling and skidding operations will be conducted to minimize damage to this advanced regeneration and residual stems.

Preferentially skid over balsam fir advanced growth to reduce its abundance and minimize damage to cedar and other ‘To Stay’ species.

Preferred Silvicultural Treatment Package

Management Approach Treatment Description STP SGR Min. Species Composition Objectives Min. Stk
Applicable to Regen. Cut Only Shelterwood - Nat Regen CE-CE-1 85 Ce>=40% & Ce>Sb+La+Bf & Hdwds <30% 0.6

Natural regeneration; no intervention expected.

HDUS – Tolerant Hardwood Uniform Shelterwood Forest Unit

Marking and Harvest Instructions

The shelterwood system is used generally when the basal area of AGS hardwoods is less than 9m2/ha. Marking is to target the removal of UGS stems to attain a crown closure of 60 percent if Mh regeneration is less than 1 m.

In well-stocked areas of Mh and By regeneration (12,000 stems/ha) greater than 1 m in height, final removal may be applied respecting NDPEG and cavity tree retention requirements described below. If the regeneration is polewood size, maintain the wildlife trees but do not reduce the AGS polewood and small sawlog trees below 14m2/ha.

Directly competing tolerant and mid-tolerant trees of equal quality should be retained based on the following priority: 1) yellow birch, 2) oak, black cherry, ash, basswood, beech, 3) hard maple, hemlock, white spruce, 4) other hardwood, 5) other conifer.

Where possible, stems retained for NDPEG should include 8 mast trees/ha (Or, Be, Cb, Bd, Iw) and 5 to 10 scattered conifers/ha, preferably white spruce. Cavity and supercanopy trees must also be left where available.

Preferred Silvicultural Treatment Packages

Management Approach Treatment Description STP SGR Min. Species Composition Objectives Min. Stk
Applicable to Regen. Cut Only Shelterwood - Nat Regen HDUS-HDUS-1 87 By>=40% or Oak>=30% & Tol Hdwds+He>=40% 0.6
Pw Restoration Shelterwood-PInt_PwSw-Chem HDUS-PWUS-1 89 Pw+Pr>=30% and (Pw+Pr)xStk>=30 0.6

Typically no silvicultural intervention is expected to regenerate the hardwoods, but stand improvement cutting of non-merchantable stems may be undertaken. Infrequently, on sites where evidence of past presence of white or red pine (stumps) exists, consideration will be given to restoring these sites to those species.

HE – Hemlock Uniform Shelterwood Forest Unit

Marking and Harvest Instructions

The marking objective at the seed cut stage is to attain 60 to 70 percent crown closure following harvest.

When hemlock regeneration is 0.5 to 1 m and regeneration stocking is 60 percent, mark for first removal to attain 40 to 50 percent crown closure following harvest.

Final removal marking may be done when hemlock regeneration is 1 m or greater and regeneration stocking is 60 percent. Ten of the NDPEG stems should be veteran hemlock. Once NDPEG / cavity requirements have been met, all remaining merchantable ‘To Go’ species are to be harvested.

In areas of ‘To Stay’ species advanced regeneration, tree markers will consider logging chance and mark to minimize damage during logging. Felling and skidding operations will be conducted to minimize damage to this advanced regeneration and residual stems.

Preferentially skid over balsam fir advanced growth to reduce its abundance and minimize damage to hemlock and other ‘To Stay’ species.

Preferred Silvicultural Treatment Package

Management Approach Treatment Description STP SGR Min. Species Composition Objectives Min. Stk
Applicable to Regen. Cut Only Shelterwood - Nat Regen HE-HE-1 95 He>=40% 0.6

Natural regeneration; no intervention expected.

LWMX - Lowland Mixwoods Uniform Shelterwood Forest Unit

Marking and Harvest Instructions

Manage under two-cut shelterwood system. The marking objective at the seed cut stage is to attain 50 percent crown closure following harvest.

When regeneration of acceptable hardwood (ash, elm, red maple, yellow birch, oak) is 1.8 m in height and regeneration stocking is 60 percent, mark for first removal to attain 40 to 50 percent crown closure following harvest.

Final removal marking may be done when acceptable hardwood regeneration is 1.8 m or greater and regeneration stocking is 60 percent. Once NDPEG / cavity tree requirements have been met, all remaining merchantable ‘To Go’ species are to be harvested.

In areas of ‘To Stay’ species advanced regeneration, tree markers will consider logging chance and mark to minimize damage during logging. Felling and skidding operations will be conducted to minimize damage to this advanced regeneration and residual stems.

Preferred Silvicultural Treatment Package

Management Approach Treatment Description STP SGR Min. Species Composition Objectives Min. Stk
Applicable to Regen. Cut Only Shelterwood - Nat Regen LWMX-LWMX-1 99 Ce+Ab+La+Sb>=30% & Ab>=20% or Ab+Mr+By>=30% 0.6

Natural regeneration; no intervention expected.

PWUS – White Pine Uniform Shelterwood Forest Unit

Marking and Harvest Instructions

Where the basal area of white pine / red pine / white spruce is 12 m2/ha or greater, white pine uniform shelterwood marking guidelines will apply. Characteristics of more than one pine shelterwood stage commonly occur in one stand. Mark for the immediately local stage present.

Preparatory cut marking is required where the white pine / red pine overstorey is young (<80 years) and has narrow crowded crowns, often when red pine is the predominant species. Preparatory cut residual tree spacing is targeted at 30 percent of average stem height.

Seed cut marking is done when overstorey white pine and red pine crowns are fully developed and minimal white pine and red pine regeneration is present. The marking goal is to achieve 50 percent crown closure following harvest.

First removal marking is done when white pine regeneration is between 30 cm and 6 m in height and all-species stocking is at least 60 percent. The goal is to achieve 30 - 40 percent overhead cover following harvest.

Final removal marking is done when white pine regeneration is 6 m or taller and all-species stocking is at least 60 percent.
At all stages retain 10 veteran white pine / red pine stems/ha including 1 supercanopy tree per 4 ha. These veterans may also contribute to NDPEG / cavity tree targets.

In areas of white pine / red pine / white spruce regeneration, tree markers will consider logging chance and mark to minimize damage during logging. Felling and skidding operations will be conducted to minimize damage to advanced regeneration and residual stems.

White pine, red pine, and all other ‘To Stay’ species are to be retained unless marked for removal. All merchantable ‘To Go’ species are to be harvested unless marked for retention. Where advanced pine and spruce regeneration has established under declining intolerant hardwoods, the hardwood overstorey may be retained to reduce felling and skidding damage to the regenerating conifer. Preferentially skid over balsam fir advanced growth to reduce its abundance and minimize damage to pine and spruce.

Preferred Silvicultural Treatment Package

Management Approach Treatment Description STP SGR Min. Species Composition Objectives Min. Stk
Applicable to Regen. Cut Only Shelterwood - Nat Regen PWUS-PWUS-1 101 Pw+Pr>=30% and (Pw+Pr)xStk>=30 0.6

 

Mgmt Approach Treatment Description STP SGR Min. Species Composition Objectives Min Stk Applicable to Regen. Cut Only Shelterwood–Nat Regen PWUS-PWUS-1 101 Pw+Pr>=30% and (Pw+Pr)xStk>=30 0.6

Typically 50 to 70 percent of a PWUS harvest area is site prepared with a glyphosate-based herbicide using a skidder-mounted air blast sprayer one or two seasons following harvest. The majority of the non-treated area is shallow-soil rock caps with advanced pine regeneration not in need of treatment and the remainder is low moist-soil hardwood patches that would not support pine. White pine is planted at a rate of approximately 1300/ha in the season following site preparation. Typically planting is done in August, but may be done in May or June. Air blast or aerial chemical tending with a glyphosate-based herbicide will be done two or three seasons following planting. If competition is less severe, tending may be delayed and done manually using mechanical or chemical techniques. A second tending, which may be any one of the application techniques, may be required two to four years later to create a free-to-grow condition for the pine regeneration.

HDSEL – Tolerant Hardwood Selection Forest Unit

Marking and Harvest Instructions

Mark to remove UGS to achieve a target residual basal area of 18 - 20 m2/ha while maintaining uneven-aged stand structure. The ideal distribution is 6 m2 polewood, 6 m2 small sawlogs, 5 m2 medium sawlogs, and 1 to 3 m2 large sawlogs. Generally, in any given area, no more than 33 percent of the basal area may be removed. Apply hardwood shelterwood rules in patches where AGS basal area is less than 9 m2/ha.

Group selection may be applied in areas with a component of mid tolerant species (By, Or, Bd, Cb). Openings may not exceed twice canopy height or exceed 20 percent of the stand area.

Where possible, stems retained for NDPEG should include 8 mast trees/ha (Or, Be, Cb, Bd, Iw). Retain 5 to 10 scattered conifers/ha, preferably white spruce. Cavity and supercanopy trees must also be left where available.

Preferred Silvicultural Treatment Package

Management Approach Treatment Description STP SGR Min. Species Composition Objectives Min. Stk
No Active Regen. Stage Shelterwood - Nat Regen HDSEL-HDSEL-1 111 Tolerant Hdwds+He>=50% 0.6

The selection system has no active regeneration stage, but stand improvement cutting of non-merchantable stems may be undertaken.